Nose against the window


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Notater fra artikler



multiplicity (poetisk)


(“la carte, c´est le paysage, le pas que vous faites invente la route” solveig godeluck)



« Internet ou le sixième continent : le cyberespace a beau être un espace virtuel, il ne s’en trouve pas moins, comme tout territoire, au centre de conflits majeurs entre des acteurs qui mettent en œuvre à son sujet des stratégies de prise de contrôle qui ne sont pas sans ressemblance avec ce qui se déroule dans l’espace physique. C’est le pari de Solveig Godeluck, journaliste spécialisée en nouvelles technologies de le démontrer dans le livre qu’elle publie sous un titre évocateur : La Géopolitique d’Internet […]. Et l’enjeu de ce combat n’est pas mince rappelle Solveig Godeluck : car les débats qui concernent Internet ne font que préfigurer ceux que nous connaîtrons tous demain. »


Adam & Itso


Human, all too Posthuman? Net Art and its Critics 2000 / Josephine Berry

The ‘immaterial’ nature of the medium and the ease of maintaining anonymity within it, helped fuel dreams of an identity unconstrained by corporeality – the disembodied utopia of the posthuman. For all these reasons and others, Net Art was celebrated as a radically democratising art form

artists created a sense of the malleability of the technology, its openness to invention, alteration, and non-utilitarian ends.

Net Art is any more blinkered from the realities of global experience than most of the exhibits in western contemporary art spaces. But the stronger defense of Net Art to accusations that it covers over the true inequities of real, embodied, experience around the globe is that such accusations conversely imply identities and experiences reducible to the molar determinants of nationality, gender, class and race. They claim to speak on behalf of various groups and in so doing distort and reduce lived experience to a set of formulas, in much the same way that politicians do within representational democracies. If anything, net artists’ material investigation of the unruly, mutagenic quality of information networks comes closer to grasping the irreducible nature of identity within the irreducibly complex strata of global social existence. As sociologist Tiziana Terranova has recently pointed out, the shift from old to new media, or from the ‘Set’ to the ‘Net’ is indicative of a conflict between two different types of cultural force, ‘the culture of representation and the spectacle and the culture of participation and virtuality’. Terranova, in line with writers such as Negri and Hardt, also argues that the Net materialises the ‘non-representational’ nature of social reality through its ability to network together a vast spectrum of divergent ideas into a collective assemblage or ‘general intellect’. Looked at in this light, it is possible to conclude that Net Art’s simultaneous failing and achievement is that it avoids the vicarious representation of techno-industrial globalisation, its hugely divergent experience, in favour of a more open-ended investigation of the material conditions of social possibilities. In this respect, Net Art explores ‘virtuality’ in its true sense; not the drift of disembodied avatars through computer-generated space, but the convergence of social and technological forces in a constantly unfolding horizon of possibility.


Video as Social Agent September 2008 / Michael Shanks

They suggest that media are as much about modes of engagement between people, ideas, artifacts and settings as they are about the communication of messages or the representation of “reality”

In this political economy of new media we are presented with various roles for the artist: they may act as prompt, instigating artwork; they may be commentator or critic, standing back to generate insight; above all, perhaps, they may act as dramaturg or scenographer, setting up arrangements and assemblages so as to enhance this popular digital poetics of collaborative cocreation.

This performative space is indeed about social agency — the ability of individuals and communities to effect changes that matter, to exert influence, to be represented, to be the agents at the root of the creation of values and goods. Radical distinctions between real world and virtual world, between reality and representation are secondary matters, because we have always lived in mixed realities constituted by imagination. Our individuality has always been negotiated in terms of others — we are our relationships with others. For as long as we have been human we have presented avatars to the world, proferred representations of ourselves, memories of who we were, stories of what we are, dreams of what we could be, worlds that we might build together. ( AS: artists with different roles)


Art meet Net, Net meet Art 2000

Matthew Fuller

has copied the official website, and switched its contents

Artwork has been made via computer networks since they have been around. (The Thing is at There are many other related sites of interest, usually interlinked in some circuitous way. Try setting off from here.)

(Mongrel for instance usually create a triangular relation of circulation for their work between art structures; cultures of the net; and the social, familial and community networks that they operate in. This allows them to avoid being pinned down in any one domain, but also usefully to create ways of making the contexts in which they operate strange to themselves.) On the other hand, it finds in the nets a way to initiate or take part in a process of producing clusters of data, of signs, but not pretend or even hope to have any determining control over their outcome: data can be moved and data can be mutated.

According to the sociologist Jean Baudrillard, “…the fixed reserve of the museum is necessary for the functioning of the sign exchange of paintings. Museums often play the role of banker in the political economy of paintings.”4 The Tate demonstrably follows this function of the art museum. But crucially, in coming to some accommodation with the nets it has had to abandon the gold standard that its reserve is founded upon. Individual authorship; good provenance of works; uniqueness of objects; the ‘autonomy’ of art; are all usurped by the artists, groups and processes producing the most suggestive work on the web. (Coupled of course is a tidy range of technological obstacles to the prolonged collection, archiving and storage of networked material.) The gold standard which the Tate calculates will suffice for now, is that of the distinguished ouevre of the artists commissioned for this series. But here’s the rub: those who pull the best work off on the web are usually equally as bent on pulling the rug from underneath themselves. (AS: hardwood)

JODI, the inventively bugged-out producers of sites and downloadables such as 4045, OSS6 and SOD7 once claimed that, “Net.artists live on the web”. For artists working via the nets to now involve museums as one of the media systems through which their work circulates what is crucial is, alongside the avoidance of being simply nailed down by the spotlight, to attempt to establish, not a comfy mode of living for the museum on the networks, but a series of prototypes for and chances at something other and more mongrel than both.

Both of these varied systems as they intermesh are interrogable along the lines of their forms of sociability, degrees of openness to use and participation, insistence on particular representational protocols, expression or obfustication of technological materiality, capacities for reading and re-writing of underlying schemas, and so on. It is to what extent at each moment of their permutations they are unable to provide grounds for generalisation – to demand close attention – and at the same time provide new visions for the reconfiguration of the networks and the museum and what might already be coming after them that they can be considered useful and, back to JODI, alive.



They took the stance of opposition to the ideas of tradition and professionalism in the arts of

their time, the Fluxus group shifted the emphasis {rom what an artist makes to the artist’s ersonali ,actions, and 0 inions.



C’est au cours des années soixante-dix que Muntadas élabore son concept de paysage médiatique, entreprenant une critique systématique de la fausse objectivité des médias qui dénaturent le rapport public/privé.

Dans des vidéos conçues à partir du montage/collage d’émissions de télévision, il déconstruit tant l’information –Between the Lines (1979), Watching the Press, Reading the Television (1980)–que les slogans publicitaires ou politiques, Media Ecology Ads (1982), Political Adventisement (1984 ).


Fred forest

En octobre 1974, il fonde avec Jean-Paul Thénot et Hervé Fischer le Collectif d’ Art sociologique (19741980), mouvement faisant l’objet d’un manifeste publié dans le journal Le Monde (19741975). L’ Art sociologique se veut être une pratique qui emploie certaines méthodes de la sociologie (enquêtes, documentaires, etc.) afin de questionner de façon critique les rapports complexes entre arts et sociétés. Il s’agissait pour ce collectif de détourner les modes de communication et de diffusion de l’information selon une méthode de la perturbation : renvoyer au spectateur une image de son conditionnement, le faire participer, l’inciter à se rapproprier les médias et à porter sur eux un regard critique et contestataire.

En 1983, à Salerne (Italie) il crée en collaboration avec Mario Costa le Groupe International de Recherche de l’Esthétique de la Communication. Fred Forest publie le Manifeste de l’Esthétique de la Communication et réalise un travail de thèse sur l’Art sociologique et l’Esthétique de la communication, dont la soutenance, en 1985, se voit transformée en performance vidéo.
L’objectif des performances / actions de Fred Forest sont de montrer en quoi les nouvelles technologies de communication et transmission d’information modifient notre rapport au réel, à la réalité, au temps et à l’espace, faisant appel à des notions telles que : l’ubiquité, l’immédiateté, le temps réel, les réseaux, l’action à distance.



As is the case in most political, social, and cultural areas, network technologies have replaced traditional forms of asserting authority on national borders. Checks now take place practically everywhere in real time. Chip cards, biometric systems, and electronic collars, regulate access to proprietary, privileged, or otherwise restricted areas, and collate images of human movement in gigantic databases. The surveillance of the electronically equipped border by means of heat, infrared, radar and satellite technology has undergone a dramatic change in significance. Today’s borders are not so much about racist permission and refusal of entry as about user profiling. The ultimate aim of postmodern border management is above all the filtering of presumably useful from non-useful border crossers.

But the borderland is also a place where tactics triumph over any strategy. In this context Bunting’s BorderXing Guide has the potential to become a very helpful tool for an increasing number of people: an electronic antidote against any virtual or real border regime, but as low-tech as a real coyote.

Florian Schneider is a filmmaker, writer and media activist, member of the collective action network No One is Illegal and co-organisor of the Cross the Border campaign



Bust down the door

In 2001, Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries won a Webby award in the art category. On the jury, some argued that selecting Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries would send the wrong message to the art world, since their work does not exemplify such distinctive features of the net art medium as interactivity or algorithmic computation. This argument derives from Clement Greenberg’s view that “the essence of Modernism lies… in the use of characteristic methods of a discipline to criticize the discipline itself, not in order to subvert it but in order to entrench it more firmly in its area of competence.” Although Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries’ work fails the Greenberg test, it exemplifies many of the historical and relational dynamics of new media art: an experimental engagement with emerging media technologies; the use of new media to reach audiences directly, without art-world intermediaries; collaborative production; and a global perspective.




”I think new technologies create a new structure of thinking. As a matter of fact, this new structure of thinking does not mandatory express itself through these technologies. Internet does not give rise to artists who use Internet. Internet creates new possibilities in our consciousness. New technologies penetrate art. This is an instrument which gives opportunity to do something different”
Nicolas Bourriaud

Da nettet for alvor var brudt igennem midt i 1990erne fik det hurtigt en praktisk funktion på den danske kunstscene som en ny multimedial kanal for formidling af kunst og kunstrelateret materiale. Nettet blev også genstand for en mediespecifik udforskning (se f.eks. Artsp@ce-projekterne fra 1995 og frem på Artnodes website, de senere projekter på websitet eller afsøgningen af mediet på, et site støttet af Statens Kunstfond). Disse to grundlæggende dimensioner kan kun i teorien adskilles, de fleste værker og projekter indeholder begge. Her skal det primært belyses, hvordan nettet (og forestillingerne om det) på forskellige planer interagerede med den selvforståelse og de udviklingsretninger, der kendetegnede særligt den fremspirende, unge kunstscene i København midt i 1990erne.

Nettet var et frirum, et territorium der endnu ikke var kortlagt, hvor hvem som helst kunne få sig et stykke land og opbygge en hjemmeside. Nettet var rhizomatisk og var således et immaterielt og dog reelt eksempel på, at en pluralistisk og ikke-hierarkisk verden kunne etableres som alternativ til de eksisterende magtforhold. Man kunne lave sin egen parallelle scene, nøjagtigt som de unge kunstnere og kuratorer gjorde det i begyndelsen og midten af 1990erne.

Der var tale om netværker, der gerne forstod sig selv som selvorganiserende og uafhængige af de eksisterende magtstrukturer, uden dog nødvendigvis at være i direkte opposition hertil (at agere traditionel avantgarde var for altmodisch). Scenen eksisterede i egen selvforståelse – og på netværksagtig vis – parallelt med den ”gamle kunstscene” bestående af kunstnersammenslutninger, gallerier og museer, der ikke uden videre var til sinds at give helt unge kunstnere en plads i rampelyset.

Det fører for vidt her at komme ind på dette projekt, der løb i mere end en måned, blot kan det med særligt øje for nettet nævnes, at Update også bød på netadgang, webprojekter og et bibliotek, hvis formål ifølge arrangørerne var ”at stille spørgsmål ved de eksisterende biblioteksmodeller, og at prøve at udforme en alternativ struktur der stemmer bedre overens med nutidige medier og tanker”

Den pluralistiske indstilling til de enkelte kunstneriske medier var selvsagt ikke kompatibel med den overdrevne fokusering på nettet som specifikt medium, der kunne iagttages internationalt med den snævre, samtidigeægelse hos blandt andre Vuk Cosic, Alexei Shulgin og Olia Lialina. Selv Artnode, der kan siges at ligge tættest på dette internationale fænomen i kraft af især medlemmernes indsigt og interesse i nettets mange teknologiske og kulturelle facetter, opererede ud fra tidens pluralistiske ideologi. Som man kunne læse i en pressetekst fra marts 1996 i anledning af en af gruppens første aktiviteter, en præsentation af video og netbaserede værker af skandinaviske kunstnere på Smartshow i Stockholm:

Denne ide om nettet som forum for alternativ og fri udveksling af information holdt i hvert fald årtiet ud, og en anden variant var således projektet Omstilling–Netstafet i 1999 (kurateret af Lars Buchardt, Annette Elgaard, Hanne-Louise Johannesen, Stinne Bo Schmidt og Ulrikke Vind).

Forestillingen om nettet som et alternativt, fleksibelt og ikke-hierarkisk rum stod dog ikke alene. Iagttagelsen af en stigende grad af kommercialisering, hvor ”access” blev til en egentlig ”commodity” og dermed modarbejdede det berømte slogan ”Information wants to be free”, ses hos kunstneren Mads Ranch Kornum, der fungerede som tekstredaktør på Artsp@ce og i en tekst fra 1995 påpegede følgende:

Ensretning i form af censur og kommercialisering lå som truende understrømme parallelt med at nettet muliggjorde (og muliggør) fri udveksling med relativt lave produktions- og distributionsomkostninger. Superflex’ projekt Superchannel blev etableret med kulturministeriel støtte og sendte for første gang fra udstillingsstedet 1% i 1999



This inevitably leads into a much larger argument, what exactly is an art object, and how relevant is its definition to Internet Art? In her unpublished thesis on site specific Internet Art, Josephine Berry discusses this question at a time when Walter Benjamin’s 1936 essay, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, seems more relevant than ever. As works of Internet Art have no specific aura (available, according to Benjamin, only to the unique, distinguishable and immutable art object) she believes that they are in danger of  “merely duplicating the banalised modalities of mass media in (their) attempt to free (themselves) from the cultish myth of the artist as progenitor of sublime realities”. This is in many ways the fruition of the modernist dream, the melting of life and art into one another. Indeed, in their Introduction to (1994-99), Bookchin and Shulgin cite ‘closing the gap between art and everyday life’ as one of the key aims of Internet Art in general. [lire aussi le commentaire 1 de l’article 04]

Gary Owens
How has Internet Art dealing with the theme of identity challenged the notion of authorship and the traditional artist/audience relationship? MA uclan, 2003.





Til sidst – kunne du så sige noget om, hvor netkunsten er på vej hen?

Eksisterer net.kunsten i dag? Jeg er selv i tvivl. Måske er den muteret så meget, at

den ikke kan genkendes. Hvis ikke Skype var et kommercielt milliard firma, så var

det da et fantastisk og subversivt net.kunst-værk: at lade alle tale med alle – på tværs

af (de fleste) grænser. Gratis og uden om de gamle, støvede telefonselskaber.

Jeg tror, det vil gavne sagen at skelne mellem web.kunst og net.kunst.

Og jeg mener, at web.kunsten – defineret som kunst, der udelukkende foregår på

webbet – er død. Måske har den sejret sig ihjel med Web 2.0? Web.kunst som en

forløber for det bruger-genererede web, hvor alle bidrager og giver sig til kende på


Men internettet er jo andet og mere end blot webbet. Internettet er jo en fysisk

kommunikations-infrastruktur og en række beslutninger om, hvordan denne

infrastruktur kan bruges (”protokoller”). Webbet er blot én protokol blandt mange


På udstillinger ser jeg oftere og oftere værker, der integrerer internettet. Det kan være

telematiske værker, der observerer og reagerer på fjerne hændelser –

naturfænomener eller overskrifter fra nyhedstjenester. Jeg ser også værker, der

kommunikerer over nettet – med andre værker eller med mennesker.

Så måske kan jeg konkludere, at web.kunsten er død, og at net.kunsten har det godt.

Måske så godt, at ordet ”net.kunst” forsvinder fra vores sprogbrug, og vi accepterer,

at et kunstværk kan inkludere internettet.



sean cubitt “from internationalism to transnations” Dans At a distance: precursors to art and activism on the Internet Par Annmarie Chandler,Norie Neumark


La sociologie urbaine

Par la suite, il s’est occupé plus particulièrement des problèmes d’urbanisme et du territoire, présentant la ville comme le cœur de l’insurrection esthétique contre le quotidien. Pour lui l’être humain a des besoins sociaux anthropologiques qui ne sont pas pris en compte dans les réflexions théoriques sur la ville et notamment en urbanisme. Le besoin d’imaginaire est oublié par l’urbanisme et ne se retrouve pas dans les équipements commerciaux et culturels mis en place. Face aux problèmes urbains, il formule notamment la nécessité de l’affirmation d’un nouveau droit, le droit à la ville. Il définit ce nouveau droit comme un droit à la vie urbaine, à une qualité de vie urbaine. Dans son dernier livre, la production de l’espace il met en valeur l’importance de l’espace qui est toujours politique. L’espace est le produit de la société, chaque société et valeur doit produire son espace et c’est aussi dans l’espace que s’opposent les valeurs à travers les épreuves de l’espace.


Critique de Josephine Berry:

For instance, it is not hard to grasp the fact that we are living in an increasingly surveilled society, and yet for those uninitiated in the operations of the Web or the codified territory of open source or free software, a brief trip to’s website would doubtless yield little insight. Although Conceptual art has long posed the dilemma of the viewer’s required initiation into art history and aesthetic theory in order to equate its often quotidian materials and gestures with art, there is no doubt that Net Art often makes even greater demands of its viewers. Not only is a familiarity with conceptualism essential, but so is a familiarity with the protocols of the Net. Beyond this, the viewer also needs the requisite PC operating system, software and plug-ins etc. to be able to view much of the work in the first place. In this sense the implied viewer of Net Art is nearly always the privileged western subject even if the subject matter is explicitly its excluded other, as in Heath Bunting’s project BorderXing Guide, now viewable as part of the Tate’s new Net commissions.

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